HomeGenitourinary Cancer

Urinary bladder specialist in Delhi NCR- Dr. Saphalta Baghmar

The genitourinary tract often refers to the genitals and the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, urinary bladder, ureters, urethra, and genitals.

What is genitourinary cancer?

Cancer refers to the uncontrolled growth of cells present in the genitourinary tract.

The different types of genitourinary cancer are:

  • Urinary bladder cancer: The urinary bladder is the organ responsible for urine storage. Internally, it is lined with urothelial cells, and any mutation in the cells causes malignant development. 
  • Kidney cancer: The kidney is an important organ for removing waste from the body. Cancer is caused by the abnormal development of kidney cells. 
  • Penile cancer: Males are affected by penile cancer, which causes malignant development of the cells around the penis.
  • Ureteral cancer: The urethra is a tube that aids in the elimination of urine from the body. The cells in the urethra can develop abnormally and cause cancer.
  • Prostate cancer: The prostate gland is an essential gland found in the male reproductive system. Prostate cancer is a cancerous development in this gland.
  • Testicular cancer: The testes are one of the most essential reproductive organs in males, producing the essential hormone testosterone. Cancer is caused by the malignant development of testicular cells.

What are the major symptoms of genitourinary cancer?

There are many symptoms of genitourinary cancers. The symptoms differ according to the location of cancer as well as the severity.

Cancer that is present in the urinary bladder causes symptoms like

  • Painful urination
  • Presence of blood in the urine
  • Frequent urination

Other cancers like penile and testicular cancer show symptoms like swelling, the presence of ulcers and lumps around the penis and testis.

Prostate cancer may not cause any signs or symptoms in early stages.

Prostate cancer that's more advanced may cause signs and symptoms such as:

  • Trouble urinating like increase in frequency and difficulty in starting of the flow
  • Decreased force in the stream of urine
  • Blood in the urine
  • Bone pain
  • Erectile dysfunction

In case you are suffering from any one of the above-mentioned symptoms and is looking for the best urinary bladder specialist in Delhi NCR then you can book your consultation with Saphalta Baghmar.

What causes genitourinary cancer?

The precise cause of genitourinary cancer is unknown. However, it is well recognised that cancer is caused by a mutation in the DNA. These cancers can be caused by the same variables that raise the risk of DNA mutation.

  • In some situations, smoking has been found to induce genitourinary cancer.
  • Exposure to toxic chemicals is another factor. 
  • A small percentage of urogenital cancers may be inherited from parents and it can be expressed at the time of birth or develop in childhood.

What are the risk factors for genitourinary cancers?

There are numerous factors that can be considered a risk factor for general cancer:

  • Cigarette smoking
  • The use of tobacco
  • Exposure to radiation therapy for the treatment of any condition
  • The major risk factor for penile cancer is infection with human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • Increasing age is another factor that can lead to increased chances of urogenital cancer.
  • Poor lifestyle choices like obesity and hypertension

How is genitourinary cancer diagnosed?

The following methods and tests can be used to detect genitourinary cancer. The techniques and procedures utilised for diagnosis differ depending on the kind and location of the tumour.

  • Various imaging tests are performed, including CT scans, MRI scans, ultrasounds, PET scans, intravenous pyelograms, and angiography. These tests provided a clearer knowledge of the location and extent of the malignancy.
  • Cystoscopy is another test that is done with the help of a thin tube, which is known as an cystoscope. This cystoscope is inserted into the urinary tract to get a better picture of the cellular structure and extent of cancer.
  • Biopsy of the tissue and tissue fluid samples can also be done to understand how the cancer is progressing.

What are the treatment options for genitourinary cancers?

Factors such as the location of the tumour, the severity of the illness, the patient's age, and overall health are all considered while determining the best treatment choice for the patient.

  • Chemotherapy is a treatment that uses strong medicines to destroy cancer cells. To achieve the best outcomes, this can be done alone or in combination with other treatments like surgery and radiation therapy.
  • Targeted drug therapies are another way that has shown promising results in treating genitourinary cancers.
  • Immunotherapy where the body's own immune system is used to fight against the cancerous cell has also shown promising results for the treatment of genitourinary cancers.
  • The use of strong radiation therapies like x-rays is done to remove cancer cells.
  • Surgical treatment is another option where the cancerous tissue is physically removed.

Genitourinary cancer may have a significant impact on one's life and is a highly difficult condition to cope with. It is critical that you select an oncologist who offers the best treatment and understands and tailors a cancer treatment plan to your specific needs. Dr Saphalta Baghmar is a well-known medical oncologist in Delhi NCR with years of experience and skill in cancer treatment.


1. How can I reduce my risk for uterine cancer? nbsp;

You can lower the risk of developing uterine cancer by maintaining a healthy body weight with a BMI preferably less than 25 and staying physically active. Maintaining balanced levels of estrogen and progesterone in your body, either by taking birth control pills or using progestin-secreting intrauterine devices (IUDs) also helps prevent the overgrowth of the inner lining of the uterus. If you are considering undergoing Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT), consult with your doctor thoroughly as these treatments can put you at a higher risk of the disease. Note that you cannot entirely negate the chances of having uterine cancer as genetic, environmental, and other factors also come into play.

2. Why does obesity increase the risk of cancer of the uterus?  

Obesity accounts for approximately 70% of the cases of uterine cancer and is among the top preventable causes of the disease. This is because obesity increases the production of hormones including fasting insulin, testosterone, and estrogen which affect the uterine walls. It poses a risk of overgrowth of the inner lining of the uterus which may transform into a cancerous development. This is often seen in cases of lifelong obesity rather than short-lived overweight episodes. The extra weight disrupts the endocrine system and other bodily functions, thus disturbing the proper functioning of the body and preventing efficient disease management.

3. How is uterine cancer treated? 

The treatment of uterine cancer is personalized and is planned by a cancer care team consisting of interdisciplinary experts. It may contain one or more of the leading cancer treatment procedures including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, hormone therapy, and others. If the cancer has spread only locally, your oncologist might suggest the removal of the affected areas. Surgery can be performed for the removal of the ovaries (oophorectomy), cervix (cervicectomy), uterus (hysterectomy), fallopian tubes (salpingectomy), or lymph nodes (lymphadenectomy). While chemotherapy and radiotherapy are standard procedures in the treatment of cancer, hormone therapy also shows remarkable action against uterine cancer.

4. What is the most common genitourinary cancer? 

Prostate cancer is the most common type of genitourinary cancer, followed by cancers of the urinary bladder and the kidneys. Among different types of bladder cancer, urothelial bladder cancer is the most frequently diagnosed. Cancers of the testes, penis, and adrenal glands are the least common among all genitourinary cancers. 

5. Can you detect cancer in urine? 

The microscopic examination of the urine sample, called urine cytology, can help in viewing and identifying any cancerous cells present in it. However, it is not a completely reliable screening method for cancer. Other techniques involve testing the urine sample for certain cancer-specific proteins and enzymes. This aspect of screening is still being developed for more reliability. Note that for a proper cancer diagnosis, a biopsy is the most reliable and recommended method. 

6. What color is urine with cancer? 

People with cancer of the urinary bladder may experience a reddish or brownish tint to their urine. This could be due to blood residues in the urine after purification. Note that this is only one of the many potential symptoms of bladder cancer. If you experience this or any other symptom of this disease, expert consultation is recommended. 

7. What are the warning signs of bladder cancer? 

The presence of blood or blood clots in the urine is among the primary signs of bladder cancer. You may also experience frequent urination or a burning sensation during urinating. Not being able to pass urine even though you get the sensation is another possible sign. Other common symptoms of bladder cancer include pain in the lower back, lower abdomen, or in one side of the body. 

8. How do you treat genitourinary cancer?

Surgery is the primary preference of oncologists to treat genitourinary cancer. It may be paired with either chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or both. However, in the later stages, surgery is not an option. Then, chemotherapy and radiotherapy usually form the primary treatment options. Your oncologist may also include other techniques like immunotherapy in your cancer treatment plan. The plan depends on the type and stage of cancer and your body’s response to each treatment.

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